Domain 4 Exam.
A minimum of 70% is required to pass.
#1. When attackers set up war dialing, what do they try to do?
War Dialing is the indiscriminate and repeated act of cracking dial-ups in search of dial-up lines, such as those for non-public internal networks. It automatically scans a list of telephone numbers, usually dialing all numbers in the local area code, and searches modems, computers, bulletin board systems, and fax machines.
#2. Angela wants a computer environment that can be used together in departmental groups while easily sharing network resources. Which computers should logically be used as group computers?
Virtual LANs (VLANs) allow logical isolation and grouping of computers based on resource requirements, security, or business needs, despite the standard physical location of the system. Computers in the same department configured on the same VLAN network can all receive the same broadcast messages, allowing all users to access the same types of resources regardless of their physical location.
×：Open Network Architecture
Open network architecture is wrong because it describes the technology that can configure a network; the OSI model provides a framework for developing products that operate within an open network architecture.
Incorrect because an intranet is a private network used by a company when it wants to use Internet and Web-based technologies in its internal network.
Incorrect because a Value Added Network (VAN) is an electronic data interchange (EDI) infrastructure developed and maintained by a service bureau.
#3. An IT security team at a small healthcare organization wants to focus on maintaining IDS, firewalls, enterprise-wide anti-malware solutions, data leak prevention technology, and centralized log management. Which of the following types of solutions implement standardized and streamlined security features?
〇：Unified Threat Management
Unified Threat Management (UTM) appliance products have been developed to provide firewall, malware, spam, IDS / IPS, content filtering, data leak prevention, VPN capabilities, and continuous monitoring and reporting in computer networks.
Since this question asks for a definition of Unified Threat Management that is unfamiliar or not even mentioned in the course material, it is inefficient to buy and study a new book just to get this score. To avoid ending up with “I don’t know = I can’t solve it,” be sure to develop the habit of choosing a “better answer.
If you think in terms of the classification Concepts/Standards > Solutions/Implementation Methods, ISCM (NIST SP800-137) and centralized access control systems are the former, while Unified Threat Management and cloud-based security solutions are the latter. Therefore, it is still better to bet on unified threat management and cloud-based security solutions.
×：ISCM (NIST SP800-137)
Because continuous monitoring in the security industry is most commonly Information Security Continuous Monitoring ISCM (NIST SP800-137), which enables companies to gain situational awareness, continuous awareness of information security, vulnerabilities, and threats to support business risk management decisions , is incorrect.
×：Centralized Access Control System
Wrong because a centralized access control system does not attempt to combine all of the security products and capabilities mentioned in the issue. A centralized access control system is used so that its access control can be enforced in a standardized manner across different systems in a network environment.
×：Cloud-based security solutions
Cloud-based security solutions include security managed services that allow an outsourced company to manage and maintain a company’s security devices and solutions, but this is not considered a cloud-based solution. The cloud-based solution provides the infrastructure environment, platform, or application to the customer so that the customer does not have to spend time and money maintaining these items themselves.
#4. Which of the following is NOT an effective countermeasure against spam mail?
〇：Make the mail relay server available to everyone.
This is a question of choosing the “ineffective” one. An open mail relay server is not an effective countermeasure against spam. In fact, spammers often use spammers to distribute spam, because the attackers can hide their identities. An open mail relay server is an SMTP server configured to allow inbound SMTP connections from anyone on the Internet, and many relays are properly configured to prevent attackers from distributing spam and pornography. Thus, the correct answer is “have an email relay server available to everyone.” will be.
×：Build a properly configured mail relay server.
A properly configured mail relay server can also suppress spam mail.
×：Perform filtering at the e-mail gateway.
Filtering emails that are considered spam mail at the gateway will help to prevent spam mail.
×：Filtering at the client.
Filtering spam mail at the client, i.e., in a mailing application such as Outlook, is considered to be a countermeasure against spam mail.
#5. Encryption can occur at different layers of the operating system and network stack. Where does PPTP encryption occur?
#6. Software-defined network (SDN) technology specifies which of the following?
〇：How routers are centrally managed and control packets based on the controller’s instructions
Software-defined networks (SDN) are intended to facilitate centralized management of routing decisions and to separate the router’s logical functions of passing data between the routing decision and the interface and making its mechanical functions.SDN architecture is a scalable, a programmable, and is intended to be a standard method of providing router control logic. Therefore, the correct answer is “a way for routers to be centrally managed and control packets based on the controller’s instructions.
×：Mapping between MAC and IP addresses.
×：Updating the routing table in a dynamic way.
Explanation of dynamic routing.
×：A method in which routers communicate with each other to update the routing table when an event occurs.
This is an explanation of routing control in case of communication failure.
#7. Which of the following is a straightforward inference as to why email spoofing was so easily carried out?
〇：SMTP lacks proper authentication mechanisms.
Email spoofing is easy to perform if the SMTP lacks proper authentication mechanisms. An attacker can spoof the sender address of an e-mail by sending a Telnet command to port 25 of the mail server. The spammer uses e-mail spoofing to prevent himself from being identified.
×：The administrator forgot to configure a setting that prevents inbound SMTP connections for non-functioning domains.
If it is spoofed, the email sender is also spoofed. This can happen even if you prevent inbound SMTP connections for a domain.
×：Technically abolished by keyword filtering.
Filtering is not very effective against spoofing. Therefore, even if it is technically obsolete, it is unlikely to be the cause.
×：The blacklist function is not technically reliable.
If an email is spoofed, the sender of the email is also spoofed. This can happen even if the filtering function is not reliable.
#8. Which of the following are threats to layers 5-7 of the OSI reference model?
#9. The IT Security team has been asked to propose a mitigation strategy using the OSI reference model. Which of these would address the Layer 7 issue?
Application firewalls target Layer 7 of the OSI. The main advantage of an application firewall is its ability to understand specific applications and protocols. Packets are not decrypted until Layer 6, so Layer 7 can see the entire packet. Other firewalls can only inspect the packet, not the payload. It can detect if an unwanted application or service is trying to bypass the firewall by using a protocol on an allowed port, or if the protocol is being used in a malicious manner.
#10. Which word indicates the destination address and the computer service or protocol communication method at the destination?
UDP (User Datagram Protocol) and TCP (Transmission Control Protocol) are transport protocols used by applications to retrieve data over a network. Both use ports to communicate with the upper OSI layer and keep track of the various conversations that occur simultaneously. Ports are also the mechanism used to identify how other computers access services. When a TCP or UDP message is formed, the source and destination ports are included in the header information along with the source and destination IP addresses. This IP address and port number is called a socket; the IP address serves as the gateway to the computer and the port serves as the gateway to the actual protocol or service.
This is incorrect because the IP address does not tell the packet how to communicate with the service or protocol. The purpose of an IP address is to identify and address the location of a host or network interface. Each node in a network has a unique IP address. This information, along with the source and destination ports, make up a socket. The IP address tells the packet where to go, and the port indicates how to communicate with the appropriate service or protocol.
The port is incorrect because it tells the packet only how to communicate with the appropriate service or protocol. It does not tell the packet where it should go. The IP address provides this information. Ports are communication endpoints used by IP protocols such as TCP and UDP. Ports are identified by a number.
Frame is incorrect because the term is used to refer to a datagram after the header and trailer have been given to the data link layer.
#11. Which of the following is an incorrect description of IP telephony security?
〇：Softphones are safer than IP phones.
IP softphones should be used with caution. A softphone is a software application that allows users to make calls via computer over the Internet. Replacing dedicated hardware, a softphone works like a traditional telephone. Skype is an example of a softphone application. Compared to hardware-based IP phones, softphones are more receptive to IP networks. However, softphones are no worse than other interactive Internet applications because they do not separate voice traffic from data, as IP phones do, and also because data-centric malware can more easily enter the network through softphones. network.
×：VoIP networks should be protected with the same security controls used on data networks.
The statement is incorrect because it correctly describes the security of an IP telephony network. an IP telephony network uses the same technology as a traditional IP network, which allows it to support voice applications. Therefore, IP telephony networks are susceptible to the same vulnerabilities as traditional IP networks and should be protected accordingly. This means that IP telephony networks should be designed to have adequate security.
×：As an endpoint, IP telephony can be a target of attack.
Incorrect because true: An IP phone on an IP telephony network is equivalent to a workstation on a data network in terms of vulnerability to attack. Thus, IP phones should be protected with many of the same security controls implemented on traditional workstations. For example, the default administrator password must be changed. Unnecessary remote access functions need to be disabled. Logging should be enabled and the firmware upgrade process should be secured.
×：The current Internet architecture in which voice is transmitted is more secure than physical phone lines.
True and therefore incorrect. In most cases, the current Internet architecture in which voice is transmitted is more secure than physical telephone lines. Physical phone lines provide a point-to-point connection, which is difficult to leverage over the software-based tunnels that make up the bulk of the Internet. This is an important factor to consider when protecting IP telephony networks because the network is now transmitting 2 valuable asset data and voice. It is not unusual for personal information, financial information, and other sensitive data to be spoken over the phone; intercepting this information over an IP telephony network is as easy as intercepting regular data. Currently voice traffic should also be encrypted.
#12. Which of the following is the most appropriate relationship between SSL and TLS?
〇：TLS is an open community version of SSL.
Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) and Transport Layer Security (TLS) are cryptographic protocols used to protect communications by encrypting segments of a network connection. SSL is a proprietary protocol and TLS was developed by a standards body, making it an open community protocol.
×：TLS is an open community version of SSL. SSL is a proprietary protocol and TLS was developed by a standards body, making it an open community protocol. x: The SSL protocol can be modified by developers to extend its capabilities.
This is incorrect because SSL is a proprietary protocol developed by Netscape. This means that the technical community cannot easily interoperate and extend SSL to extend to its functionality.
×：SSL is an open community protocol while TLS is a proprietary protocol.
The meaning and matching are reversed.
×：SSL is an extended version and backward compatible with TLS.
Wrong, since TLS is actually more extensible than SSL and is not backward compatible with SSL.
#13. What is the IPSec SA value?
#14. Layer 2 of the OSI model has two sublayers. What are the two IEEE standards that represent these sublayers and technologies?
The data link layer or Layer 2 of the OSI model adds a header and trailer to the packet to prepare the packet in binary format in local area network or wide area network technology for proper line transmission. Layer 2 is divided into two functional sublayers. The upper sublayer is logical link control (LLC), which is defined in the IEEE 802.2 specification. It communicates with the network layer above the data link layer. Below the LLC is the Media Access Control (MAC) sublayer, which specifies interfaces with the protocol requirements of the physical layer.
#15. What are the problems with RADIUS that have been eliminated by Diameter?
#16. Which of the following is an attack that accesses an internal IP address as the source from the outside and aims for internal access by means of a response request?
A LAND attack is an attack that penetrates firewalls that block bad requests; it is similar to the Fraggle attack, but it sends a request to the firewall with the sender as the target of the attack. This is a blind spot because the firewall, which is supposed to protect the inside of the system, is used for the attack.
Teardrop is an attack that halts the system by forging the offset of IP packets before they are split.
×：Christmas Tree Attack
A Christmas tree attack is an attack in which a packet is sent with a number of flags (URG, ACK, PSH, RST, SYN, FIN) and the response is observed.
CHARGEN (port 19) is a protocol that returns an appropriate string.
#17. IP telephony networks require the same security measures as those implemented on IP data networks. Which of the following is a feature unique to IP telephony?
〇：IP Session Restriction via Media Gateway
The VoIP Media Gateway translates Internet Protocol (VoIP) voice over time division multiplexing (TDM) voice to and from. As a security measure, the number of calls through the Media Gateway should be limited. The Media Gateway is vulnerable to denial-of-service attacks, hijacking, and other types of attacks.
×：Identification of Rogue Devices
Incorrect, as rogue devices on both IP telephony and data networks need to be identified.
×：Implementation of Authentication
Incorrect because authentication is recommended for both data and voice networks.
×：Encryption of packets containing sensitive information
Incorrect because sensitive data can be transmitted over either voice or data networks and must be encrypted in both cases. Eavesdropping is a very real threat for VoIP networks.
#18. Which of the following attacks aims to bring down equipment by means of packets whose offsets have been tampered with?
Teardrop is an attack to bring a system to a halt by forging the offset of IP packets when they are returned before splitting.
Fraggle attack is an attack that uses the CHARGEN function to generate an appropriate string.
There is no attack with such a name.
Wardriving is the act of driving around a city looking for vulnerable wireless LAN access points.
#19. DNS is a popular target for attackers on the Internet; which ones use recursive queries to pollute the caches of DNS servers?
The DNS plays a great role in the transmission of traffic on the Internet; it directs traffic to the appropriate IP address corresponding to a given domain name DNS queries can be classified as either recursive or iterative. In a recursive query, the DNS server forwards the query to another server, which returns the appropriate response to the inquirer. In an iterative query, the DNS server responds with the address of another DNS server that may be able to answer the question and then proceeds to further ask for a new DNS server. Attackers use recursive queries to pollute the caches of DNS servers.
The attacker sends a recursive query to the victim’s DNS server asking for the IP address of the domain; the DNS server forwards the query to another DNS server. Before the other DNS server responds, the attacker inserts his IP address. The victim server receives the IP address and stores it in its cache for a specific period of time. The next time the system queries the server for resolution, the server directs the user to the attacker’s IP address.
×：Manipulating the hosts file
Manipulating the hosts file is wrong because it does not use recursive queries to pollute the DNS server cache. The client queries the hosts file before issuing a request to the first DNS server. Some viruses add the antivirus vendor’s invalid IP address to the hosts file to prevent the virus definition file from being downloaded and to prevent detection.
Social engineering is wrong because it does not require querying DNS servers. Social engineering refers to manipulation by an individual for the purpose of gaining unauthorized access or information.
Domain litigation is wrong because it does not involve poisoning the DNS server cache. Domain names are at trademark risk, including temporary unavailability or permanent loss of established domain names.
#20. Robert is responsible for implementing a common architecture for accessing sensitive information over an Internet connection. Which of the following best describes this type of architecture?
The 3-tier architecture clearly distinguishes the three layers: the client has the user interface responsible for input and displaying results, and the server has the functional process logic responsible for data processing and data storage for accessing the database. The user interface role is generally handled by the front-end web server with which the user interacts. It can handle both static and cached dynamic content. The functional process logic is where requests are reformatted and processed. It is typically a dynamic content processing and generation level application server. Data storage is where sensitive data is held. It is the back-end database and holds both the data and the database management system software used to manage and provide access to the data.
Two-tier, or client/server, is incorrect because it describes an architecture in which a server serves one or more clients that request those services.
A screen-subnet architecture is for one firewall to protect one server (basically a one-tier architecture). The external, public-side firewall monitors requests from untrusted networks like the Internet. If one layer, the only firewall, is compromised, an attacker can access sensitive data residing on the server with relative ease.
×：Public and Private DNS Zones
Separating DNS servers into public and private servers provides protection, but this is not the actual architecture.